The first full year of the war saw Germany invading its European neighbors: Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, and Romania, and the bombing of Britain lasted for months.
The Royal Air Force undertook nighttime raids in Germany in response. Germany, Italy, and Japan signed a joint military and economic agreement, and Italy invaded Egypt, which was controlled by the British, Albania, and Greece. The United States shifted to a stance of "nonbelligerancy" rather than neutrality so it could find ways to help the Allies, and the Lend-Lease Act the exchange of materiel aid then for year leases on property to be used for foreign military bases was proposed late in the year. Popular opinion still didn't want Americans in another war "over there.
Italy may have been defeated in Greece, but that didn't mean that Germany wouldn't take the country. Then it was on to Yugoslavia and Russia. Germany broke its pact with the Soviet Union and invaded there, but the winter and Soviet counterattack killed many German troops. The Soviets next joined the Allies. Also that year, Japan captured Singapore, which was Britain's last location in the Pacific, as well as islands such as Borneo and Sumatra.
By the middle of the year, though, the Allies started gaining ground, with the Battle of Midway being the turning point there. Germany captured Libya, but the Allies started making gains in Africa, and Soviet counterattacks made progress as well in Stalingrad. Stalingrad turned into Germany's first major defeat in , and the North Africa stalemate ended, with the surrender of the Axis powers to the Allies in Tunisia.
The tide was finally turning, though not fast enough for the people in the 27 merchant vessels sunk by Germany in the Atlantic in four days in March. But Bletchley codebreakers and long-range aircraft inflicted a serious toll on the U-boats, pretty much ending the Battle of the Atlantic. The autumn of the year saw the fall of Italy to Allied forces, prompting Germany to invade there. The Germans successfully rescued Mussolini, and battles in Italy between forces in the north and south drug on.
In the Pacific, Allied forces gained territory in New Guinea—to attempt to protect Australia from Japanese invasion—as well as Guadalcanal. The Soviets continued expelling Germans from their territory, and the Battle of Kursk was key. American troops played a big role in battles to take back France in , including landings on Normandy beaches that caught the Germans by surprise. Italy was finally liberated as well, and the Soviets' counterattack pushed the German soldiers back to Warsaw, Poland.
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Germany lost , soldiers captured during the battle in Minsk. The Battle of the Bulge, however, postponed the Allies marching into Germany for a while. In the Pacific, Japan gained more territory in China, but its success was limited by the Communist troops there. The Allies fought back by taking Saipan and invading the Philippines.
Liberation of concentration camps, such as Auschwitz, made the extent of the Holocaust clearer to the Allies. Bombs still fell on London and Germany in , but before April was over, two of the Axis leaders would be dead and Germany's surrender would soon follow. Franklin D. Roosevelt also died in April but of natural causes.
The war in the Pacific continued, but the Allies made significant progress there through battles at Iwo Jima, the Philippines, and Okinawa, and Japan started to retreat from China. By mid-August, it was all over. Japan surrendered shortly after the second atomic bomb was unleashed on the island nation and Sept. Estimates put 50 million dead around the world, including 20 million Russian civilians, and 6 million Jews, one-third of their worldwide population.
Share Flipboard Email. Jennifer Rosenberg is a historian, history fact-checker, and freelance writer who writes about 20th-century history topics. September 3: Britain and France declare war on Germany.
September: Battle of the Atlantic begins. May: Auschwitz is established. May Germany invades France, Belgium, and the Netherlands.
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May Evacuation begins of Allied troops from Dunkirk, France. June Italy declares war on France and Great Britain. John K. Dickinson New York: Da Capo, Goebbels had long used his propaganda machine to cultivate this image as being one with the Volk.
HISTORY OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR
To cite just one example, Heiber Heiber , Helmut Goebbels. But the propaganda minister's public pretensions at austerity and anti-corruption flew in the face of his own behavior. The point about choice is one made by Dr Mahboub Hashem, of the Department of Mass Communication at the American University of Sharjah, in his lectures on the subject of persuasive communication. The English Historical Review See Evans Evans , Richard J. The same text was read over Hamburg radio on the following day Paul Heart trouble was also the public reason for the removal of Field Marshal Walther von Brauchitsch as Germany's commander-in-chief after the failure to take Moscow in Baird When the 20 July plot on Hitler's life failed, it was publicly dismissed as the work of a small clique of disaffected officers.
When suspicion fell upon Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, hitherto magnified into heroic status via German propaganda, he was allowed to commit suicide and his death was reported as the result of earlier injuries. Skip to Main Content.
Search in: This Journal Anywhere. Advanced search. Journal Media History Volume 14, - Issue 2. Submit an article Journal homepage. Joseph Gibbs Correspondence jgibbs aus. Pages Published online: 22 Jul
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