Bear in mind; a custom mezzanine should meet your needs exactly.
Therefore, the column layout should accommodate upper-level loads as well as provide the room you need on the lower floor level. Perhaps you have an existing manufacturing operation on the floor level that you do not want to change or interrupt — the column layout should accommodate this need. However, fewer columns mean higher column loads, and, therefore, an increased likelihood that you will need concrete footings.
In the final analysis, the need for fewer columns should be weighed against the potential cost of new footings. Do guard rails and stairs meet code? Mezzanines that are publicly accessible need to meet specific code requirements for stairways, stair extensions, and spacing of guardrails. If the mezzanine will be used strictly as a storage room, and it is not accessible to the public, then a different set of code requirements apply.
Make sure your mezzanine design meets all applicable building code requirements. If a mezzanine job is going to be permitted, it will most likely be subject to IBC requirements. If the mezzanine is not going to be permitted, many customers will be required to use OSHA code as a minimum requirement for items like stairs and railing.
Are all structural calculations prepared by a professional engineer? Building plan reviewers do not always evaluate the structural calculations of a mezzanine. However, your mezzanine should be designed by a licensed, professional engineer. The engineer should also provide all structural calculations and detailed drawings that show connection and framing details, column layouts, load factors, etc.
A professionally engineered and PE-stamped mezzanine will ensure you of a structurally sound design. PE-stamped drawings should specify the mezzanine layout, column placement, stair runs, gate locations, connections, and all other details. All drawings and calculations should be stamped by a licensed professional engineer to assure you of complete safety and structural integrity.
This will also provide you with peace of mind that your mezzanine is safe and built to code. Permit requirements for structures like these are becoming common in more and more states. While permits typically add time and aggravation to delivering the project, PE-stamped drawings and calculations will in most cases expedite the permit approval process.
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Submit the mezzanine calculation package to your building inspector. A complete mezzanine calculation package should be sent to your building department. Submit the mezzanine design information to your building inspector as a final check. Have you obtained the proper permits? This will vary depending on the area. However, remember that PE-stamped mezzanine drawings will help to facilitate permit approval for you, your architect or general contractor.
What are the mezzanine capacity requirements? Think about what is going on top of the mezzanine and pass that information on to the mezzanine engineers so they can design it to meet the right code category or liability rating. A quality mezzanine company will help you determine the capacity you need. Do mezzanine materials meet ASTM specifications? Make sure that all of the materials used to build the mezzanine meet ASTM specifications — including support columns, base plates, structural framing, joists, roof deck, and handrails.
Are mezzanine components powder coated? Powder-coated components tend to be extremely durable and more visually attractive. Powder coat paints are also available in a variety of colors — this may be significant if your mezzanine is grouped with other structures storage rack, shelving, conveyors, carousels, etc.
Is the mezzanine over-designed or under-designed for your application? At times, an end user may contact a local steel fabrication shop to build a mezzanine. Often this results in an over-designed or under-designed mezzanine. An over-designed mezzanine will be more costly because more steel is used; an under-designed mezzanine could lead to structural failure and a potential collapse.
A properly engineered mezzanine will use as little steel as possible to get you the capacity that you need. The final design should maximize material efficiency for optimum strength, using the least amount of material to achieve the desired capacity. The requirements for storage of chemicals in stockrooms and laboratories will vary widely depending on local code; the quantity, hazard-.
A careful review of all requirements by the project team is needed to ensure an adequate design for chemical storage space and to safeguard this space against reappropriation to other functions. Special attention should be given to storage requirements for flammable and combustible liquids, gas cylinders, highly reactive substances, toxic materials, and controlled substances. Dedicated space within or near the laboratory is desirable for the accumulation and temporary storage of hazardous chemical waste materials.
These areas could also be used to foster and support recycling and reuse programs. Safety considerations should be a primary concern in the design of these spaces. For example, the areas should not interfere with normal laboratory operations, and ventilated storage may be necessary. In larger accumulation areas, it may be necessary to consider fire suppression systems, ventilation, and dikes to avoid sewer contamination in case of spills.
A central storage area for emergency equipment will improve the effectiveness of emergency-response functions.
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Space should be provided for storing self-contained breathing apparatus, blankets for covering injured persons, firstaid equipment, personal protective equipment, and chemical spill cleanup kits and spill-control equipment. The well-designed chemical laboratory should provide, or be capable of being easily modified to provide, reasonable accommodations for qualified workers with disabilities. Reasonable accommodation may include making laboratories readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities and by acquiring or appropriately modifying equipment for use by individuals with disabilities.
Most laboratory designs that allow simple rearrangement of casework—i. Many accommodations will also improve the safety of occupants without disabilities. For example, keeping aisle space clear of obstructions to accommodate workers with impaired mobility will enhance everyone's safety. Special hardware that makes it easy to open and close doors can benefit all laboratory workers who carry supplies and materials from one laboratory to another.
In considering reasonable accommodations for workers with disabilities it is necessary to ensure that the accommodation will not result in a significant risk to the health or safety of other workers. Qualification statements for workers with disabilities who seek employment in chemical laboratories should include a requirement that an individual shall not pose a direct threat to the health or safety of other individuals in the laboratory. Laboratory worker safety is an important consideration when determining the specific layout for laboratory equipment, casework, and work desks.
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Worker safety issues, for example, should take precedence over program needs in determining the appropriateness of open laboratories for chemical operations, the location of chemical laboratory fume hoods, the location of entrances and exits, and whether student work desks should be included within the operational area of a working laboratory.
Other aspects of these issues are discussed in the section on "Sociology" in Chapter 1. Open laboratories have had a positive effect on improving laboratory occupants' compliance with safety requirements. Peer pressure can be persuasive in elevating the standards of individuals whose commitment to safety falls below the standards set by the group. But open laboratories are not appropriate for laboratory operations that present moderate to high risks or for laboratories where the level of safety practice appropriate for the work conducted by individuals in the laboratory varies considerably.
Generally it is not advisable to adopt an open laboratory design concept if the potential risks associated with laboratory operations require formal access control measures. The placement of laboratory fume hoods should allow alternate routes of egress so that laboratory personnel do not pass in front of the face of the hoods in emergency situations.
A desk or seated workstation should never be located directly across the laboratory aisle from a hood. Hoods should be placed in low-traffic areas away from doors and air supply grills to prevent air turbulence that could compromise hood performance. Generally student desks should not be located in working laboratories that present moderate to high occupational risks.
For example, student desks should be placed near an exit door so that students will not have to move through a hazardous area to reach the exit, but the desks should also be located such that they do not create a barrier to emergency egress. Laboratory users involved in the predesign or design phase of a research laboratory project often have preconceived impressions of what features their future laboratory must have.
However, laboratory users often lack experience in laboratory design and so may be unfamiliar with design issues, possible design alternatives, or methods of evaluating those alternatives. The design considerations described in this section are unique to laboratory buildings. While some of the design approaches discussed in this chapter may increase construction and. Users' familiarity with alternative approaches to specific laboratory design issues will most likely lead to a more efficient, cost-effective, flexible, safe, and environmentally appropriate laboratory facility.
Although an experienced and knowledgeable design professional can assist in the identification of design issues to consider and can evaluate appropriate alternative approaches to laboratory design, this is not always the case. Even when an experienced and knowledgeable design professional is available, it is advantageous for the user representative and the client team to become informed consumers of the design professional's services. The design considerations presented here range from those requiring large-scale decisions, such as constructing a new building versus renovating an existing building, through intermediate-scale options, such as floor planning, to small-scale issues, such as laboratory configuration.
They also include considerations related to structural as well as mechanical, electrical, and plumbing MEP systems Box 3. Administrative policies should be considered throughout, since many institutions have defined practices or standards that affect many design issues.
Many of the design considerations are interdependent. Decisions regarding larger-scale issues, which should be made early in the design process, can limit or preclude many of the smaller-scale design decisions. Knowledge of these dependencies, often provided by the laboratory design professional to the client team, will help streamline the design process and maximize the potential for a cost-effective and optimum design solution. Some of the design considerations discussed in this chapter include specific alternative approaches.
What is acceptable as an alternative in laboratory design may differ according to scientific discipline. This report focuses primarily on chemical, biochemical, and molecular biology laboratories, but it is also relevant. However, the requirements of highly specialized laboratories, such as animal facilities, are covered in other guides such as the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals NRC, Richmond and McKinney provides design details for laboratories using identifiable infectious agents.
Acceptable design alternatives also differ between organizations on the basis of their goals, geographic location, governing authorities, and other factors, The goals for a new research laboratory building or renovation should be determined in the early stages of planning as they will influence the development of appropriate design alternatives.
Geographic location may influence the acceptability of a particular design alternative; for example, the more stringent seismic requirements of building codes in southern California, as compared to New Jersey, will influence the overall height of the laboratory building in California both because of the increased structural costs associated with the applicable building codes and because of building height restrictions.
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Similarly, the authority of local governing authorities to interpret zoning regulations, building and fire codes, and other local regulations can influence the design of the laboratory facility. Choosing between the different alternatives is a complex process that must strike a balance between benefits and costs. The latter include construction, total project, operation, and lifetime costs of the building; these costs are discussed in the section on "Research Laboratory Cost Considerations" in this chapter. When choosing between the different alternatives, other factors besides costs and benefits also need to be considered see Box 3.
Of all the criteria noted in Box 3. Flexibility, which is also referred to as adaptability, is the ability of a building site, building design, or individual laboratory to meet both current and unforeseen future needs. Future laboratory additions, renovations, and modifications can be implemented cost effectively, in a timely manner, and with less disruption to other users if the laboratory facility is designed to be flexible.
Flexibility may come at a modest increase in the initial construction cost; however, because numerous changes will be made to a laboratory over its lifetime, the cost incurred to design and. Designing and siting any large building involves many considerations, some of which are given in Box 3.
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